The history of education is a history that examines education which includes the education system, schooling, and community ideas about education, religion, and science. Therefore, in its historiographical form, the history of education is difficult to distinguish from intellectual history if we talk about the idea of education. Let us take a look at how education first came to society and why there are schools.
According to Silver, the attention to the history of education has been visible since the 19th century in some western countries in America and Europe. The importance of the history of education is used for various purposes, especially to raise awareness of the nation and cultural unity, development of the teaching profession, or pride in specific educational institutions and types.
The essence of education itself is actually very broad considering that it acts as a cultural transmission (science, technology, ideas, spiritual and aesthetic values) from generation to generation. Therefore, the historical age of education is the same as the historical historiography approach in general, which emphasizes the diachronic approach.
The diachronic approach commonly used in history is similar to a vertical cross-section of a log. Which shows the progression from the starting point moving from one phase to the next, in other words revealing the genesis of a phenomenon. Whereas in the synchronic approach which is commonly used in other social sciences. It can be compared to a cross-section or horizontal. This means that this approach views the phenomenon as a unit or system. Its function and structure are explained how the parts of the unit work and are interrelated and their functions jointly support the function of the unit.
Perhaps almost all students of every age question why school should be. Do you know since when schools existed and why they were created? Why is there a school?
School is not a new invention but has appeared since thousands of years ago. In fact, education has existed since the beginning of human civilization. Why? Schools existed from the beginning of human civilization to survive. Each generation feels the need to pass on the accumulated knowledge, skills, values , and traditions to the next generation.
How is the inheritance process? The answer is education. Every succeeding generation must receive instruction regarding the accumulation of knowledge to the traditions of the previous generation.
Humans originally didn’t need schools to pass on information. Young children receive education in the family unit. Over time, the population grows and society is formed. Rather than each family being individually responsible for education. People soon realized it was easier and more efficient to form small groups of adults to teach large groups of children.
A group of students can learn skills and knowledge together, which saves more time and allows students to learn from each other. This is the earliest school concept. The school in ancient times was unlike the schools known today. The ancient schools focused more on the ability to teach and pass on religious values. Rather than teaching specific subjects as applied in today’s education system.